Family and Local History
The Panbride, Barry and Carnoustie, Scotland,
By C. Gray, a contributor from U.S.A.
(Numbered Footnotes at end.)
The Parishes of Barry and Panbride have a long history, some of which is traceable through early church documents and the records of the Baronies of Panmure and Panbride.
The Barony of Panmure comprised the largest part of the parish of Panbride, over two-thirds of its area on the north and
east. The earliest recorded owner of the barony was Philip de Valognes (Valloniis), a grandson of a Norman knight who had landed at Hastings in 1066.
He was favoured by William I (1165-1214), and was granted the Angus baronies of Benvie and Panmure sometime after 1171.
Sir Peter Maule married the de Valloniis heiress, Christina, in 1224 and thus began the over-750-year dynasty of the family on the estates of Panmure.
Except for a 49-year interruption when the Maules were disposed for having been among the leaders of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, the estate has been in the family's hands until the 20th
It is important to remember that the communities of "Panbride" and "Barry" were defined by their parish boundaries - until the 19th century they were essentially clusters of communities, most of which were extremely small, only a few houses. The parish of Panbride, is bordered by the sea on the south, the parishes of Barry and Monikie on the west, Carmyllie to the north, Arbirlot to the north-east, and part of St. Vigeans on the south-east. Barry is bordered by Panbride on the west, Monikie and Monifieth on the north and northwest, the sea to the south, and on the west by the River Tay.
The countryside in both parishes is flat near the sea, gradually becoming hilly to the north. A bank, which seems to have possibly once been the shore, runs through Barry, from east to west, giving the northern part of the parish 50 feet or so of elevation over the southern part.
In 1760 the population of the parish of Panbride was 1183, in 1790 the population had grown to 1460, and in 1831 the population was 1268 (the decrease being attributed to the removal of some villages and to the uniting of smaller farms into larger ones). In 1760, the parish of Barry had a population of 689, in 1791 it numbered 796, and in 1833 the population was 2124 (1200 in Carnoustie and 150 in Barry, the remainder is the surrounding countryside). The founding of Carnoustie as a Burgh in 1777 had a tremendous impact on the growth of the population in the two parishes.
THE PARISH OF PANBRIDE
Panbride, as a village, was only formed after 1800. The original name of the settlement was "Kirkton of Panbride", named after the parish kirk. In 1794, "Panbride" was a cluster of nine buildings west of the crossroads and only the kirk and manse to the east. There were other clusters of buildings - West Haven and East Haven for example - but no village of Panbride, per se. In 1841, the village of Panbride had twenty-six households and 109 inhabitants. The hamlets of Gallowlaw, West and East Haven (all on the shore) were made of families of fishermen and sailors. Gallowlaw is supposed to have taken its name from being the site of the barony of Panbride's medieval place of execution. In the 19th Century it consisted of around twenty cottages inhabited by a skipper and salmon fishers, but no white fishers. In 1889, the whole built up area became part of Carnoustie, but the valuation roles and gazetteers distinguished residents of these areas well into the 20th Century.2
By 1841, the village of Panbride, and the Havens and Gallowlaw, had been nearly halved. Today, the town of Carnoustie has covered many of the farms and rows of cottages that once made up the village of Panbride.
The kirk of Panbride was dedicated to St. Bride (Bridget). Several successive churches have been built on the site. The medieval church had conflicting claims over jurisdiction. By the 16th century, the Maules of Panmure exercised patronage over the church. The church was rebuilt by George Maule, Earl of Panmure in 1681 to incorporate a private burial vault with a room above, once reached by an outside stair to which the jougs were once attached. The jougs are now attached to the wall and were once used to handcuff minor malefactors, a relic still in situ. The bell is dated 1681 and silver communion cups were also donated by the Maules in the 17th century. The present church was built in 1851, and is still in use.3
In 1791, the Rev. Mr. Robert Trail, minister of Panbride, noted the number of poor in the parish varied from 8 to 10, and that all were maintained in their own houses; and "there is not a beggar in the parish."4 He went on to note that "besides the ordinary poor, there is a considerable number of householders in indigent circumstances, each of whom get a boll of coals from the session yearly. The funds bearing interest do not much exceed L.100; but a considerable sum arises from the mortcloth and hearse fees. The weekly collections in church are from 5s. to 7s. or 8s."5 By 1833, David Trail (Robert Trail's son), then the minister of Panbride, reported 12 to 18 poor on the roll, all maintained in their own houses. His poor fund, amounted to only L.73, but again he raised a considerable sum from mortcloth and hearse fees. Also, "There are no assessments for the ordinary poor. But there are three lunatic paupers connected with this parish, in different asylums, the expense of whose board is L.50; of this sum the heritor pays one-half and the tenants the other."6
The parish school was founded as early as 1613, probably in connection with the kirk. There is no school building in evidence as late as 1729, but part of the kirk stable had a fireplace and is thought to have been used as a schoolroom in the 18th century. The first school was built in 1819.7
"The people in general are sober and moral in their habits; and regular in their attendance on public ordinances. They are also, as might be expected, industrious and frugal; and are altogether a very respectable portion of the community.
The ordinary food of the peasantry consists chiefly of potatoes, and of the various preparations of oatmeal; with occasionally a little butcher-meat, generally pork, at dinner. Tea is in universal use, from the highest to the lowest. On the whole, though many are liable to participate in the occasional depressions of trade, it may be stated that the people enjoy in a reasonable degree the comforts and advantages of society."8
The parishioners of Panbride were chiefly farmers or fishers, with a few becoming merchant seaman.
THE PARISH OF BARRY
Barry, lying to the west of Panbride and considerably smaller in population, was also medieval and composed of clusters of crofts and farms. "Greenlawhill", "Mosstown," "Ballskellie" - these were essentially clusters of small communities within the parish.
Many of the people of the parish were linen hand loom weavers, a prospering industry in the latter half of the 18th century, but one which went into rapid decline soon after the beginning of the 19th century. It was a trade that was easily learned, but which required the capital investment of the loom. Looms were kept in a separate room or shed, usually with an earthen floor because the damp helped keep the thread supple and the foundation kept down the vibrations, which were considerable. Weaving was a tedious process, every thread of the warp had to be tied to the loom by hand. The weaver threw the shuttle containing the weft spool from hand to hand until the invention of the flying shuttle in 1733. The damp conditions, however, took their toll: asthma and respiratory disease were common among weavers. However, in the second half of the 18th century, the life of the weaver was improved by several factors. First, technical improvements to the looms and the process, and second, the arrival of the cotton industry in central and western Scotland. The latter drew off large numbers of weavers, so those that remained in the linen trade had plenty of work. By 1791, the Statistical Account stresses time and again how well the weavers were doing, their houses and dress being vastly improved from what they had had only 10 years earlier; often noting the standard of living of the linen weavers far exceeded that of other workers. In 1791, the parish minister commented:
"Every householder almost is a manufacturer of brown linen. In the foreign markets, the linen stamped at Aberbrothock has acquired a high reputation; and it will not be denied, that to the cloth made at Barrie, which has long been distinguished for the goodness of its materials and the superiority of its workmanship, the stamp of Aberbrothock is indebted for part of its fame. By introducing honour as a prompter to excellence, the manufacture of Barrie has reached its present perfection. For more than 40 years, the inspection of the weaving, by the unanimous consent of the manufacturers, has been assigned to an annual officer, who is allowed to choose two assistant counselors. The officer, with his assessors, are eagle-eyed to discover every blemish. A pecuniary fine, or what is more dreaded, the correction of ridicule, overtakes every one who is in fault. These circumstances have contributed to fix such habits of attention and accuracy, that instances occur of workmen whose cloth has not been cast at the stamp-office in a period of 20 years. Exclusive on considerable quantities of home-grown flax, the manufacturers use yearly of foreign flax, from Riga and Petersburg, several tons, amounting in value to more than L.800. The manufacturers are in number 100. The condition of this useful class of men might be ameliorated, by insuring to them at all times abundance of flax at a reasonable rate, by continuing the encouragement on the linen branch, and by rescuing the manufactures from a twofold combination of the brown linen merchants, by which they enhance at pleasure the price of the foreign flax they sell, and depress the price of the cloth they buy."9
The prosperity did not continue, however. In the opening years of the 19th century, the industry began to show signs of depression. Flax was becoming harder and harder to get because of the Napoleonic Wars and the accompanying depression, and work was no longer regular, so earnings fell. Where handloom weaving survived (as it did in Barry and Carnoustie), it often became a winter trade. Another contemporary view of the trade:
"The chief trade of the village from the commencement was manufacturing. Lint was grown and prepared into yarn, and woven into "Hemmit claith." Towelling, sheeting, ticks, etc., were largely made, and from the first the "claith" of the Links and the Feus, commanded a ready sale. There were two or three spinning mills in the locality - Batties Den, the Brunt Mill, and Lochty Mill. And these were the days of long labour hours - work generally commencing about 5 or 6 in the morning, and continuing till 11 o'clock at night.
"Gradually the trade changed, and came to be done mostly through agents, who gave out the yarn to weavers. To our older readers and many familiar names will recur in this connection, such as - Thomas Carey, William Anderson, John Walker, all deceased; and John Smith and George J. Fairweather, who are still active men among us. Those were busy days in the village, when the "weans" filled the pirns, and the "click" of the loom was heard in every dwelling. And the streets were full of barrow-loads of "wobs" being taken in to the agents, and the urchins were running with their baskets full of pirns. And oh! The glorious loom shop, with its oily lamp, and its stour, and its din, and its fun, and its jokes and stories, its buxom weaver lasses, and its delicious courtship. Speak of factories - bah! No place like the loom shop for hugging and squeezing, and kissing - where you could sit a while winter night beside your sweetheart, none daring to make you afraid." But a change came over this order also, and when the late Mr. James Smieton erected Panmure Works, he rang the death knell of the handloom."10
"The manufacture of brown and white linen is carried on to a great extent. The great bulk of the population, male and female, are more or less engaged in it, being employed chiefly by the manufacturers of Dundee and Arbroath."11
An important section of Barry, known as the "Links of Barry", is a triangle of land that juts out into the North Sea, extending all the way to Monifieth in the west. It is where, in the 16th century, the first of the area's first golf courses was established. The local version of the story of the founding of Carnoustie relays that, in the 1780s, a Thomas Lowson was said to have been journeying between Inverfeffer and Dundee. Tired, he laid down for a rest, and soon fell asleep. It is said his sleep was so unusually refreshing that he awoke and made a resolution that if he ever built a house, he would erect it on that very spot. Not long later, he made his home, the first building of the "Feus of Barry." Soon others joined him. The proprietor of the estate, a Major Philip, soon saw that the old practice of feuing12 was likely to prove profitable offered inducements to settlers. Very quickly the small community grew.13
The Feus of Barry was to become Carnoustie, named after the estate.
CARNOUSTIE, IN THE PARISH OF BARRY
There are records of a farm of "Carnusie" as early as the Balmerino Abbey Register of ca. 1573. The origin of the name is not known and varies from a corruption of the phrase "craw's nestie" (crows nest, referring to the crows that abound in the area) to a reference to the site of the battle between the Danish troops of Camus and the Scottish army under King Malcolm II. In the 1791 Statistical Account, Carnoustie is referred to as the "estate" adjoining the remains of the encounter. The name is probably Gaelic. The first part of the name is undoubtedly "hill," but the latter half is more obscure.
Carnoustie was in the Barony of Panmure and the lands belonged to the Church of Barry when William I gave it and 13 acres to Arbroath Abbey in 1178. Alexander II used the Church name "Barry" when he gifted it to Balmerino Abbey in 1229. As early as 1640, maps show a farmhouse, marked as 'Karnousty,' on the site of Carnoustie House.
Carnoustie became a burgh in 1777 (and remained so until 1975).
In 1850, the population of Carnoustie numbered over 500, however, by 1889, there were only two or three of the original houses still standing in the place it was founded.
"While the village was in its infancy, it had the singular good fortune to be blest with good neighbours. At this time a considerable hamlet existed on that part of the Links where the volunteers now hold their annual encampments. Tow or three of the houses still stand, but, 80 years ago, there was quite a village there; indeed, about the 1850, the population of that locality numbered about 500. The residenters were a very peculiar race. Chiefly occupied in weaving and fishing, and shut up by themselves to a great extent from the outside world, they devoted themselves in the long winter nights to reading, and clubs gathered in the various houses for this purpose, and also for discussion of all subjects within their ken - secular, sacred, political, scientific, and religious. They were men of great power, and far above the average in intelligence, could debate almost any subject, and were well posted up in the leading topics of the day. The carrier brought them the weekly newspaper, and though the news were a fortnight old, they were always fresh to them. Now a considerable number of these families came to settle in Carnoustie, and their influence was felt in the small, rising place, and we can recall many names of most worthy men who helped to lay the foundation of our village, and who helped to train the youth of the time in the practice of principles of stern honesty and manly independence."14
Smuggling was a problem in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and there are legends of house built on the proceeds. However, there was little need for a constabulary. An old weaver, Thomas Gray, performed the duties of the town policeman - which consisted of seeing tramps and vagrants safely out of town.15
" I wish to lead my readers back fifty years or so to a period when things went on slowly and surely, and when men had faith in one another, when business was not carried on by accommodation bills, when people had no burning desire to be rich, when young "mashers" did not smoke cigars, and wear "turned up" collars, and when young ladies wore their hats like human beings, and not like ogres."16
The school in Carnoustie existed from its beginning.
"'Twa quarters' in the year was considered a fair allowance for a boy in which to get up his reading, writing and arithmetic. During the other 'twa quarters' he was engaged in herding or harvesting, and when at school he had to earn the money wherewith to pay his fees, by winding a certain quantity of yarn every night. This task accomplished, groups of the boys gathered together night after night in each other's homes, and go up the lessons for the coming day - some learning by the heart the 'Proverbs of Solomon,' some drawing their maps, others engaged with their sums, and so on - a babel of noise and din continuing often as late as ten o'clock, for we never parted tull the work was done.
"We occasionally had great days of high holiday. Candlemas Monday was one. On that day we paid our coal money to the teacher and got half-a-day to ourselves. But the great day of the year was "Auld Yule," the 5th of January. The observance of this day has now been entirely given up for so long a time that many of our younger people may not know what it is. It was our New Year's Day, and when it came round, the whole work of the village was suspended - the loom and pirn-wheel stood silent, the weaver lad dressed himself in his best, and the weaver lassie buskit in her brawest. The village was all astir, and the streets presented a busy scene. Prize shootings for beef, buns, cheese, and whisky drew great numbers, while the sweetie shops of the village did a roaring trade. Raffles were held in the evening, and who among my older readers can ever forget Mrs. Ferrier's hall, where we have seen, on a Yule Nicht, almost every conceivable article of consumption raffled. Indoors also there was lots of fun, and although tea parties were not so common then, yet we had our games and sports, our 'blind man's buff' and 'catch yer Jenny,' finishing up with the cheese and bread; and oh glorious! The piece of real, genuine shortbread and bun, to which be had been looking forward for twelve months before.
"The orthodox meal of "Yule Day" was the "green kail brose of dinner time," and lads and lasses all enjoyed this feast immensely. Reader, I don't suppose that I need tell you how to make it, for I do not think you would try it; and though you did, I would need to show you how to sup it. Ye'll better keep to your "drap tea" till you get so far advanced as to relish this stronger meat."17
In the early years, the main parish church of Carnoustie was Barry. Most of the villagers belonged to the Barry congregation. Large groups would go out from Carnoustie on the Sabbath in "time to allow them half-an-hour's seat and crack upon the tombstones. All matters were discussed during this half hour - roups, prices, country news, etc., till the bell stopped and the minister appeared coming up the path. Then all rose in a body and crowded the church."18 Nothing remains of the church but portions of its walls, however, the large kirkyard is still there. Between the two statistical accounts, it is easy to ascertain what happened. From the following accounts, it becomes easy to understand why the Skirlings and the Stirlings recorded their life events in both towns, when they actually lived most of their lives well within the boundaries of Barry.
Barry Kirkyard, Angus, Scotland. The remains of the church are in the centre.
Panbride Kirk, Angus, Scotland
In 1791, David Sim, the minister of the Barry church wrote about his position and church:
"The living, including the glebe is something more than L.80 Sterling a year. The King is patron. The manse, though repaired only 10 years ago, is hardly a tolerable house. The kirk is an old and sorry building. The office of schoolmaster has, for many years past, been discharged by young men of liberal education, who have successively come forward to preach, to lecture in colleges, and to fill very reputable departments in society. The annual emoluments are inconsiderable. L.5, 11s. Sterling of salary, L.2 as session-clerk's fees, 5s. for each proclamation of banns, 10d. for registering each baptism, 3d. for the registration of each burial, and 1s. 6d. a quarter, as the average fees for 40 scholars throughout the year, with some trifling gratuities, make up the total sum of the annual income. The sum of L. 30 Sterling, arising partly from Sabbath day collections, partly from the rent of some seats in the church, is the only fund allotted for pious purposes within the parish, and the annual support of the poor. A small portion of the money is yearly applied by the kirk-session, to furnish with necessary books a few of the children of indigent parents, who are unable to give them a school education without this aid. The reversion is distributed among the poor. The number on the roll is generally 11. The poor receive the public charity in their own cottages. A begging native has not been known in the parish for many years. Beggars from other places abound."19
In 1845, James Lumsden, the minister, wrote "no one can tell when the manse was built. It was repaired after a litigation with the heritors in 1828. In its present condition, it is damp, open, and uncomfortable20 and the church collections have been gradually diminishing for many years. The refusal of the heritors to enlarge the church some seven or eight years ago, induced many of the people to withhold their weekly contributions, and eventually led in 1837-8 to the erection of the quoad sacra church of Carnoustie by voluntary subscription. The opening of this church, situated as it is in the most populous part of the parish, necessarily caused a still further diminution, so that, in 1839, the whole amount of church door collections was only L.28, 11s. 8½ d.; in 1840, L.28, 7s., 10½ d.; and in 1841, L. 26, 3s., 9½ d. Oftener than once, a contribution has been received from the congregation of the quoad sacra church of Carnoustie, and in addition to what they have contributed to the poor's fund, they have occasionally made special collections and distributed them amongst the poor in their district."21
Births, marriages and deaths were dutifully recorded in the registers of the church, though the participants paid a fee to do so. Occasionally in the Old Parish Records there is a reference to "P.F." or Poor Fund, in which case the fee for inclusion in the register was paid from the church's poor fund. In both the parish of Panbride and Barry, the records are fairly complete and are easily available for review. Other records found in these Old Parish Records are the "Session Records" where interesting accounts of the parishioners can be found. The church was responsible for the morality of its charges, and did not hesitate when a member had erred. Among the Session Records of both churches can be found records of fornication, drunkenness, and other transgressions as well as the punishment meted out. A common form of punishment was the cutty stool:
"An amusing story is told of a 'cutty stool' performance in Barry. An old man, a cottar in the parish, had got into trouble with his young servant lass. He was called up before the assembly, and on account of his age and infirmity he could hardly walk. The minister was very severe on him, especially on account of his age. The man listened with bent head till the discourse was ended, when he looked up with tearful eye and penitent face, and addressing the minister, he said - "A' true, sir, a' true; yer servant is but only a puir, frail, failin' flesh."22
The social life of these people was simple. Weaving, farming and fishing were the main occupations, and many also had a small croft. With a cow and what they raised on their ground, they could live fairly well. Oatmeal and milk were the staple of the diet. Interior lighting was provided, weakly, by oil lamps. The post office was in Muirdrum, and letters were delivered when it suited the postmaster. A letter from London took about a week to come and cost 7d. in postage. Travel to Dundee or Arbroath was made on foot. No banks were in existence, so people kept their money in "kist lockers" and "stockin' feet."
Fotheringham's Carnoustie Sketches, the Village: its Characters and Customs, first published in 1889, provides interesting views into the life of the parishioners in the first half of the 19th century.
"In the days of old, they "married and gave in marriage," as has been done from the time of Adam downwards. But a marriage party of fifty years ago was something different from what it is now. At that time, there were no invited guests. The feast was open to all and sundry who were willing to enter appearance, and pay the sum of half-a-crown towards expenses, and a penny to the fiddler. Great gatherings congregated on such occasions, and the table was spread with all the necessary eatables and drinkables, to which those present were entitled to do all justice. The size of the company that came was supposed to indicate the extent of respect that was entertained for the bride and bridegroom. Often the ceremony of tying the knot took place in the minister's manse, where the company marched in procession in pairs - first, the bride and best man, followed by their male and female friends arm in arm, sometimes to the number of a dozen or twenty. They returned home in the same order, excepting that the new-made wife had her husband's arm, while the best man and best maid paired. On the home ward journey the villagers threw old slippers at them for luck, and we have seen Dundee Street, after such a procession had passed, strewn with old shoes and slippers sufficient to set up a cobbler's shop. It happened, sometimes, that a heavy boot would be made use of, and it occasionally was the cause of an unlucky incident. I remember yet of one bridegroom (and he is still living among us) who got his marriage day made memorable by a black eye in consequence of being struck with a heavily-tacketted boot. Not withstanding some such accidents, the party wen (sic) on pleasantly. . .
"The duties of the best man and best maid did not end when the marriage ceremonies were finished. They had to escort the newly married couple to the church on Sunday and see them "kirkit" - had to show them their pew and let them in, sit beside them, and then see them home. After the "kirkin'" they were considered able to look after themselves."23
"Next in importance to marriages, we may mention funerals. Our present day method of conducting these solemn obsequies are just in accordance with the haste of the age. No time is lost, an the paramount idea seems to be to get the business done as quickly as possible; so, -
'Over the stones they rattle his hones".
With our ancestors, however, this was a great occasion, and, a day or two previous to any internment, a man was sent round among the residenters, with a small black stick in hand, to knock at the doors and announce to the head of the house that he was invited to attend the funeral of ---- ----, on such a day, at such an hour. Rarely did any of the invited fail to enter appearance, and so, in the olden times, funerals were far more largely attended than now. About half-an-hour before the "liftin'" the house was filled with the invited, when the minister conducted a short religious service. This being done, cheese, bread, and whisky were supplied ad libitum. This, in those days, was considered necessity, for hard work lay before the guests. Hearses and carriages were not in use, and the coffin had to be carried all the way on spokes. During intervals in the journey, the one party relieved the other, and after the burial was finished, it was common to assemble in the public-house at the side of the "kirk-yaird" for another refreshment before proceeding home.
"For many years John Butchard did a big trade as an undertaker, and a good story is told of the way in which he once got payment for a coffin. A man's wife had died, and John was employed to make the shell. He did so to the satisfaction of all concerned, but, as there was no appearance of payment, he called for his account. He was put off - "money was scarce," "times were hard," etc., etc. Repeatedly he attacked his debtor without success. At length the widower took himself a second wife, and John made another application "Man," he said, "it's no jist very fashionable to pey the second wife's marriage shawl afore ye pey the first ane's coffin." "Wheesht, John, wheesht! Juist ca' cannie for a wee, bide a while and ye'll maybe get the second ane's too, and' we'll settle them baith the gither!"
Carnoustie "Brighton of the North".
Carnoustie celebrated its 200th anniversary in 1997, and the youngest of the (former) Burgh's in Angus.
As early as 1805 people were coming to Carnoustie for summer holidays, when people would spend a month sampling the healthy sea water and air. Its heyday, though, was from approximately 1900 to the outbreak of World War II. Attractions included 'al fresco' Pierrot shows, band concerts, a cinema, sea bathing, fairs and sport.
In the latter half of the 20th century, Carnoustie, boasting a population of over 9,000 became one of Scotland's top golfing resorts. The British Open was held there first in 1931 in and last in 1999, the sixth time the town's Championship Course hosted the renowned event. Golf and the Championship Course had been a fixture of the Barry area since the 16th century.
1 - Adams, David G. and Bob Falconer, The Ha'ens o' Panbride and Roond Aboot. A History of East Haven, West Haven & Districts. Chanonry Press, Brechin, 1990. p. 9.
2 - Ibid, p. 48.
3 - Ibid, pp. 48-49.
4 - 1791-9 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Panbride, Vol. 1, p. 438-9. http://edina.ac.uk/StatAcc/
5 - Ibid, p. 439.
6 - 1834-45 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Panbride, Vol. 11, p. 73. http://edina.ac.uk/StatAcc/ It is of interest that Robert Stirling's son, David was said to be a "lunatic" in the 1881 census.
7 - Adams, op cit., p. 49.
8 - 1834-45 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Panbride, Vol. 11, p.69.
9 - 1791-9 Statistical account, Parish of Barry, Vol. 4, pp. 238-9. It should be noted that, in 1693, Parliament had passed measures to protect the quality of the cloth produced by these handlooms. It made a provision for export cloth to be inspected and stamped, with fees to be paid to the stampmaster.
10 - Fotheringham, James, Carnoustie Sketches, The Village: its Characters and Customs. Arbroath: Brodie & Salmond, 1889. Republished by the Tay Valley Family History Society, 1999, p. 10.
11 - 1834-45 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Barry, Vol. 11, p. 660-661.
12 - Feu - from the word which gave us 'feudal'. It is the practice of having a piece of land in exchange for a favour of some sort.
13 - Fotheringham, op cit. p. 9.
14 - Ibid., p. 10.
15 - Ibid., p. 11.
16 - Ibid., p. 13.
17 - Ibid., p. 13-14.
18 - Ibid., p. 15.
19 - 1791-9 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Barry. Vol. 4, pp. 241-1.
20 - 1834-45 Statistical Account of Scotland, Parish of Barry, Vol. 11, p. 661.
21 - Ibid., p. 662.
22 - Fotheringham, op cit., p. 15-16.
23 - Ibid., p. 14-15.
C.G. April 2002
(Very minor editing by Webmaster.)
Data from the 1841 Census for many enumeration districts in Angus. Read more HERE.
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